Beckham, J. C., Feldman, M. E., & Kirby, A. C. (1998). Atrocities exposure in Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: Relationship to combat exposure, symptom severity, guilt, and interpersonal violence. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 777-785. doi: 10.1023/A:1024453618638
Bica, C. M. (2014). Blood on all our hands: Don’t thank me for my service redux. Truthout.org (8/24/14). Retrieved from http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/
Brock, R. N. & Lettini, G. (2012). Soul repair: Recovering from moral injury after war. Boston: Beacon Press.
Center for Constitutional Rights (2013). The Right to Heal: Holding the US Accountable for the Human Costs of War (Fact sheet). Retrieved from www.righttoheal.org
Currier, J. M., Holland, J. M., Drescher, K., & Foy, D. (2013). Initial psychometric evaluation of the Moral Injury Questionnaire—Military Version. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. doi:10.1002/cpp.1866.
Dao, J. (2011). After combat, the unexpected perils of coming home. New York Times (5/28/11). Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/29/us/29soldiers.html?pagewanted=all
Drescher, K. D., Foy, D. W., Kelly, C., Leshner, A., Schutz, K. & Litz, B. (2011). An exploration of the viability and usefulness of the construct of moral injury in war veterans. Traumatology, 17 (1), 8-13. doi: 10.1177/1534765610395615
Harris, J. I., Park, C. L., Currier, J. M., Usset, T. J., & Voecks, C. D. (2015, January 19). Moral Injury and Psycho-Spiritual Development: Considering the Developmental Context. Spirituality in Clinical Practice. Advance online publication. http://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/scp0000045
Hynes, H. P. (2013). The Iraq War and moral injury. Truthout.org (3/20/13). Retrieved from http://truth-out.org/news/item/15218-the-iraq-war-and-moral-injury
Jamail, D. (2009). The will to resist: Soldiers who refuse to fight in Iraq and Afghanistan. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books.
Jones, A. (2013). They were soldiers: How the wounded return from America’s wars—the untold story. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books/Dispatch Books.
Kaplan, S. (2013). Military begins to acknowledge moral injury. New England Public Radio (12/20/13). Retrieved from http://nepr.net/news/military-begins-acknowledge-moral-injury
Kinghorn, W. (2012). Combat trauma and moral fragmentation: A theological account of moral injury. Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics, 32 (2), 57-74. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23563037
Litz, B.T. (2014). Resilience in the aftermath of war trauma: A critical review and commentary. Interface Focus, 4 (5). doi: 10.1098/rsfs.2014.0008
Litz, B.T., Lebowitz, L., Gray, M.J., & Nash, W.P. (2016). Adaptive disclosure: A new treatment for military trauma, loss, and moral injury. New York: Guilford Press.
Litz, B. T., Stein, N., Delaney, E., Lebowitz, L., Nash, W. P., Silva, C., & Maguen, S. (2009). Moral injury and moral repair in war veterans: A preliminary model and intervention strategy. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 695-706. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.07.003
MacNair, R.M. (2002). Perpetration-induced traumatic stress in combat veterans. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 8 (1), 63-72. doi: 0.1207/S15327949PAC0801_6
Maguen, S. & Litz, B. (2012). Moral injury in veterans of war. PTSD Research Quarterly, 23 (1), 1-6.
Maguen, S., Lucenko, B. A., Reger, M. A., Gahm, G. A., Litz, B. T., Seal, K. H., Knight, S. J., & Marmaar, C. R. (2010). The impact of reported direct and indirect killing on mental health symptoms in Iraq War veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23 (1), 86-90. doi: 10.1002/jts.20434
Maguen, S., Luxton, D. D., Skopp, N.A., Gahm, G. A., Reger, M.A., Metzler, T. J. et al. (2011). Killing in combat, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation in Iraq War Veterans. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 563-567. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.01.003
Maguen, S., Metzler, T. J., Litz, B. T., Seal, K.H., Knight, S. J., & Marmar, C. R. (2009). The impact of killing in war on mental health symptoms and related functioning. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 435-443. doi: 101002/jts.20451
Maguen, S., Vogt, D. S., King, L. A., King, D. W., Litz, B.T., Knight, S.J., et al. (2011). The impact of killing on mental health symptoms in Gulf War veterans. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3, 21-26. doi: 10.1037/a0019897
Marx, B.P., Foley, K.M, Feinstein, B.A., Wolf, E.J., Kaloupek, D.G., & Keane, T.M. (2010). Combat-related guilt mediates the relations between exposure to combat-related abusive violence and psychiatric diagnoses. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 287-293. doi: 10.1002/da.20659
Nash, W. P., Marino Carper, T. L., Mills, M. A., Au, T., Goldsmith, A., & Litz, B. T. (2013). Psychometric evaluation of the Moral Injury Events Scale. Military Medicine, 178 (6), 646-652.
Powers, K. (2012). The yellow birds. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
Purcell, N., Koenig, C.J., Bosch, J., & Maguen, S. (2016). Veterans’ perspectives on the psychosocial impact of killing in war. The Counseling Psychologist, 44 (7), 1062-1099.
Russell, M. C. (2008). War-related medically unexplained symptoms, prevalence, and treatment: Utilizing EMDR within the armed services. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2 (3), 212-225. doi: 10.1891/1933-3126.96.36.199
Shay, J. (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat trauma and the undoing of character. New York: Atheneum.
Shay, J. (2002). Odysseus in America: Combat trauma and the trials of homecoming. New York: Scribner.
Silver, D. (2011). Beyond PTSD: Soldiers have injured souls. Truthout.org (9/3/11). Retrieved from http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/beyond-ptsd-soldiers-have-injured-souls
Tick, E. (2014). The moral trauma of “21st century warriors.” Truthout.org (11/22/14). Retrieved from http://truth-out.org/opinion/item/27419-the-moral-trauma-of-21st-century-warriors
Van Buren, P. (2014). What they died for. Truthout.org (6/29/14). Retrieved from http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/24583-what-they-died-for
Vargas, A. F., Hanson, T., Kraus, D., Drescher, K., & Foy, D. (2013). Moral injury themes in combat veterans’ narrative responses from the national Vietnam Veterans’ Readjustment Study. Traumatology, 19 (3), 243-250. doi: 10.1177/1534765613476099
Whitman-Bradley, B., Lazare, S., & Whitman-Bradley, C. (Eds.) (2011). About face: Military resisters turn against war. Oakland, CA: PM Press.
Wisco, B.E., Marx, B.P., May, C.L., et al. (2017). Moral injury in U.S. combat veterans: Results from the national health and resilience in veterans study. Depression and Anxiety, 34, 340–347. doi.org/10.1002/da.22614
Wood, D. (2014). The grunts: Damned if they kill, damned if they don’t. The Huffington Post (3/18/14). Retrieved from http://projects.huffingtonpost.com/moral-injury/the-grunts
Wood, D. (2014). The recruits: When right and wrong are hard to tell apart. The Huffington Post (3/19/14). Retrieved from http://projects.huffingtonpost.com/moral-injury/the-recruits
Wood, D. (2014). Healing: Can we treat moral wounds? The Huffington Post (3/20/14). Retrieved from http://projects.huffingtonpost.com/moral-injury/healing
Compiled by Pamela J. Johnson, Ph.D., L.C.S.W.