Scholarly References

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Center for Constitutional Rights (2013). The Right to Heal: Holding the U.S. Accountable for the Human Costs of War (Fact Sheet).

Copland, L. (2013). Staff Perspective: On Moral Injury (blog post). Center for Deployment Psychology. Retrieved from

Currier, J. M., Holland, J. M., Drescher, K., & Foy, D. (2013). Initial psychometric evaluation of the Moral Injury Questionnaire—Military Version. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. doi:10.1002/cpp.1866.

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Drescher, K. D., Foy, D. W., Kelly, C., Leshner, A., Schutz, K. & Litz, B. (2011). An exploration of the viability and usefulness of the construct of moral injury in war veterans. Traumatology, 17 (1), 8-13. doi: 10.1177/1534765610395615.

Evans, W.R., Stanley, M.A., Barrera, T.L., Exline, J.J., Pargament, K.I., & Teng, E.J. (2018). Morally injurious events and psychological distress among veterans: Examining the mediating role of religious and spiritual struggles. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(3), 360-367. doi: 10.1037/tra0000347.

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Harris, J. I., Park, C. L., Currier, J. M., Usset, T. J., & Voecks, C. D. (2015). Moral injury and psycho-spiritual development: Considering the developmental context. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 2(4), 256-266. doi:10.1037/scp0000045.

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Jamail, D. (2009). The will to resist: Soldiers who refuse to fight in Iraq and Afghanistan. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books.

Jones, A. (2013). They were soldiers: How the wounded return from America’s wars—the untold story. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books/Dispatch Books.

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Litz, B.T., Lebowitz, L., Gray, M.J., & Nash, W.P. (2016). Adaptive disclosure: A new treatment for military trauma, loss, and moral injury. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Litz, B. T., Stein, N., Delaney, E., Lebowitz, L., Nash, W. P., Silva, C., & Maguen, S. (2009). Moral injury and moral repair in war veterans: A preliminary model and intervention strategy. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 695-706. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.07.003.

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Maguen, S., Vogt, D. S., King, L. A., King, D. W., Litz, B.T., Knight, S.J., et al. (2011). The impact of killing on mental health symptoms in Gulf War veterans. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3, 21-26. doi: 10.1037/a0019897.

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Purcell, N., Koenig, C.J., Bosch, J., & Maguen, S. (2016). Veterans’ perspectives on the psychosocial impact of killing in war. The Counseling Psychologist, 44 (7), 1062-1099.

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Vargas, A. F., Hanson, T., Kraus, D., Drescher, K., & Foy, D. (2013). Moral injury themes in combat veterans’ narrative responses from the national Vietnam Veterans’ Readjustment Study. Traumatology, 19 (3), 243-250. doi: 10.1177/1534765613476099.

Whitman-Bradley, B., Lazare, S., & Whitman-Bradley, C. (Eds.) (2011). About face: Military resisters turn against war. Oakland, CA: PM Press.

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Wortmann, J.H., Eisen, E., Hundert, C., Jordan, A.H., Smith, M.W., Nash, W.P., & Litz, B.T. (2017). Spiritual features of war-related moral injury: A primer for clinicians. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 4(4), 249-261. doi: 10.1037/scp0000140.